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This model became the basis for the committee’s consideration of more complex concepts than those generally used in designing IPE, understanding the role and utility of informal learning, and evaluating the outcomes of FIGURE 3-1 An enhanced professional education model capturing essential concepts of interprofessional education.

NOTE: CE = continuing education; CIPE = continuing interprofessional education; IPE = interprofessional education. © 2013 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education. These concepts include the developmental stages of a professional’s career across the learning continuum, the incorporation of IPE into formal professional education across the developmental stages of a career, and the distinction between traditional formal continuing education (e.g., “update” models) and planned or serendipitous workplace learning (Lloyd et al., 2014; Nowlen, 1988).

This model builds on earlier thinking about a patient-centered approach to learning in the health professions and describes the intersections of IPE with basic education, graduate education, and continuing IPE; it also captures the understanding that point-of-care learning is a key component of lifelong learning (Josiah Macy Jr. This broad definition of continuing education encompasses all learning (formal, informal, workplace, serendipitous) that enhances understanding and improves patient care (IOM, 2010; Nisbet et al., 2013). Insights from advanced analytics at the Veterans Health Administration.

All of these elements are important in linking IPE to individual, population, and system outcomes.

IPE is an all-encompassing term for both formal and informal learning interventions across the education-to-practice continuum; however, the model also distinguishes among the different stages and types of professional development (foundational education, graduate education, and continuing professional development) (Reeves et al., 2011), as well as the ideally increasing percentage of overall IPE that occurs across these stages. Journal of the American Medical Association 282(9):867-874.

IPE activities generally comprise a small fraction of overall educational FIGURE 3-2 The interprofessional learning continuum (IPLC) model.

An Interprofessional Conceptual Model for Evaluating Outcomes The interprofessional learning continuum (IPLC) model shown in Figure 3-2 encompasses four interrelated components: a learning continuum; the outcomes of learning; individual and population health outcomes; system outcomes such as organizational changes, system efficiencies, and cost-effectiveness; and the major enabling and interfering factors that influence implementation and overall outcomes. Vermont blueprint for health: 2013 annual report (January 30, 2014).

To date, these concepts have not been explicitly delineated in a comprehensive, well-conceived model of IPE. health care systems (Fihn et al., 2014; Jones and Lunge, 2014; Department of Vermont Health Access, 2014) describe efforts to create teams, engage new types of workers, implement quality improvement, and collect population data in their health systems.

The importance of context and the role of informal learning have been acknowledged by many authors (Eraut, 2004; Freeth et al., 2005a). In these efforts, a variety of positive outcomes have resulted from the deployment of new interprofessional models of care that stress the value of workplace learning rather than formal educational activities.

Moreover, education and health system leaders may fail to consider the possibility of using workplace learning at earlier stages of the education continuum.

The need for better alignment between education and health systems and across the various phases of the education continuum is reinforced by large-scale transformative efforts.