Dating of multidose vials in hospitals

20 Mar

The classic example is Jenner's use of cowpox to protect against smallpox.

A current example is the use of BCG vaccine made from Mycobacterium bovis to protect against human tuberculosis.

He used it in 1798 in the long title of his Inquiry into the Variolae vaccinae known as the Cow Pox, in which he described the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox.

Sometimes, protection fails because the host's immune system simply does not respond adequately or at all.

While most vaccines are created using inactivated or attenuated compounds from micro-organisms, synthetic vaccines are composed mainly or wholly of synthetic peptides, carbohydrates, or antigens.

Vaccines may be monovalent (also called univalent) or multivalent (also called polyvalent).

Although most attenuated vaccines are viral, some are bacterial in nature.

Examples include the viral diseases yellow fever, measles, mumps, and rubella, and the bacterial disease typhoid.

A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.Other diseases such as rubella, polio, measles, mumps, chickenpox, and typhoid are nowhere near as common as they were a hundred years ago.As long as the vast majority of people are vaccinated, it is much more difficult for an outbreak of disease to occur, let alone spread. Polio, which is transmitted only between humans, is targeted by an extensive eradication campaign that has seen endemic polio restricted to only parts of three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan).Lack of response commonly results from clinical factors such as diabetes, steroid use, HIV infection or age.It also might fail for genetic reasons if the host's immune system includes no strains of B cells that can generate antibodies suited to reacting effectively and binding to the antigens associated with the pathogen.